Roman fontain in Tomonte

Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula during the Cold transmontana land, the town is located Soutochao, 135 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean, with an elevation above the same 844m. Marked by a geographic reference 41º53’58,39”N 7th 13 ‘55.28”O. A locality from which there is no evidence dating from the origin of its origin, but according to the hypothesis of recent history, can be traced to fait marked by historic cultures between the first century BC and V AD, during the pre-existence of the conquest by the Romans Northwest lawmakers, and thus reveal the great historical remnants of Roman architecture developed in the area during the time of its hegemony, the reviewing regarding Soutochao in local, geographic under existing precedent Portuguese way to Santiago Via de la Plata area. With dates from 139 AD, a European cultural itinerary of historical origins, identified by Soutochao intersection within the Zamora-Santiago route, whereby, tartesios, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, Goths, Arabs and Christians have wandered. For these ancient routes have left traces of their stay and so reveals an abrupt Acidadella ground, building a circular Castro and Roman pottery bill. A short distance to the source Tomonte, lies a stone relief of two heads of bull, or the all-powerful ancient chestnut spread by the Romans throughout the entire interior coast of Galicia, being areas and Acarballa Oval Cernada privileged to develop this lush as valuable and vital for human nutrition for over ten centuries.

Churco of San pedro de la Nave. This monument, from century VII AD, had one of the first pilgrim hostels in the world (El Campillo ZA)

Soutochao in mean age, 500 years after the absence of the Roman Empire around the Peninsular Northwest, a thick mass first appears in the year 1029 in the archives of Santiago as “Souto Planu” related to the geographic namespace chestnut forest. Saltus Latino Origin Forest. Soutochao being a town located on border Hispano-Luso, was affected by the processes of confrontation between the two states, due to frictions between them, due to the movements altercations continuous dividing line between the two countries. Being able to stay adjacent to said border towns on either side of it.

Thus in 1325 reflected Soutochao appearing in the Foral Portuguese as Soutocháoo and continuing as such until 1487.

Adjacent towns that border skirmishes suffering from it. They were subjected to constant raids and looting by both sides, not in vain the Portuguese troops in 1569 invaded these lands under the Reign of Philip II in Spain and Sebastian I in Portugal.

Virgen María Nuestra Señora de los Remedios

Following the instigation of invasion troops highlight events emerged in the eighteenth century with the vicissitudes of the war of succession, facts that urge hegemony Fermando V, Philip IV, and Charles III, during which was out the feudal period of Christianity, building most of the Christian churches in Spain. Reviewing in the same century the church of Santa Maria in Soutochao. After this social stratification, the role of the Church has come to rural areas to meet the need of personal identity of the people, besides being part of art and culture, with the ultimate memorial church the first available location . In the early ambiguity of observed fact, the term comes from the Latin Church, and the civil default mode is called Church, the Christian churches with no other name. Thus, dominates the temple traditional rules of Catholicism perennial form a Latin cross, with guidance from the nave from east to west, dominating the height and width of it. Its headwaters are rectangular and flat, the structure is built in solid stone walls and granite, with the posterior part of the highest rear temple bell uniform Cattail, vertex where two bronze bells which are located in called people to the events. On the left side, one of the vestries demolished having become dilapidated after the deterioration suffered neglect over time. Right Wing, the sacristy is kept current followed by a portico with two columns and a small archway. In its interior columns attached to the retaining walls in supporting three arches supporting wooden frame cover over the temple. On one side of the internal access through the front door, a staircase connects the mezzanine, and bell choir. On the front header the altar, a carved Baroque altarpiece stands on Walnut timber from the same period in which an image of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of Remedios, who is the patron saint stands at the parishioners of revered place on September 8 of each year, under the invocation of St. Mary Parish.

Church of Santa María in Soutochao

After these events would post the Lisbon Treaty of 29 September 1864, to mark the demarcation of the Spanish-Portuguese border, appears in the Treaty as Soutochao, being affected in its border term in Article 12 of the Treaty. An excerpt of the Treaty:

Her Majesty the Queen of Spain and his Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves having taken into consideration the state of unrest in many villages on the borders of the two kingdoms are, because there is no clear demarcation of territory or some international treaty that point, and wishing to put an end once and for all to the unpleasant altercations that arise with that theme at various points in the line, and establishing and consolidating peace and harmony between the neighboring towns; and finally recognizing the need to do away with the anomalous situation in which the shade of ancient feudal traditions have remained here some immediate to the line dividing the two states, with notable and common prejudice of these peoples, have agreed to conclude a treaty special to identify clearly and precisely, and the respective rights of the bordering towns, as both the territorial limits of sovereignty, border en route extending from the mouth of the river to the junction of the Guadiana river Caya. For this purpose they have appointed as their plenipotentiaries; namely:

Border Marker (Portuguese side)

Her Majesty the Queen of Spain to Mr. Juan Jimenez Sandoval, Marquis de la Ribera, Commander of the actual number and Distinguished Order of Charles III, commander of Isabel the Catholic, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem commander of the Dutch Lion, officer of the Legion of Honour, knight first Class of the Red Eagle of Prussia, Secretary to exercise decrees, his envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the court of his Most Faithful Majesty, etc. etc.

And the Lord Don Facundo de Goñi, deputy minister resident who has been to court, etc …

And his Majesty-King of Portugal and the Algarves the Lord Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Duke and Marquis of Loulé, Count of Valle de Reis, equerry, peer of the realm, State Councilor, Grand Cross of ancient and most noble order of the Tower and Sword, courage, loyalty and merit, commander of the Order of Christ awarded the medal number nine of Don Pedro and Doña Maria, supreme knight of the order of Santissima Annunziata and large cross of the orders of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Italy, Charles III of Spain, Green Crown, and Ernesto Pio of Saxony, Leopold of Belgium, the Netherlands Lion, officer of the Legion of Honour, knight first class of the Red Eagle of Prussia, Secretary to exercise decrees, his envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the court of his Most Faithful Majesty, etc. etc.

Luís I of Portugal

And the Lord Don Facundo de Goñi, deputy minister resident who has been to court, etc ..

And his Majesty-King of Portugal and the Algarves the Lord Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Duke and Marquis of Loulé, Count of Valle de Reis, equerry, peer of the realm, conseje of the Red Eagle and Eagle black Prussian Danebrog of Denmark, Pius IX, of the Legion of Honor of France and Saint Olav of Sweden, president of the council of ministers, minister and deputy minister of foreign affairs of the kingdom temporarily é, etc, etc. ..

And the Lord Mengo Jacinto da Silva, of the council, knight of the order of Christ, Our Lady of the Conception of Villa Vicious, and the old and mui Noble Order of the Tower and Sword, courage, loyalty and merit , awarded the medal number nine of Don Pedro and Doña Maria, commander of extraordinary number of real and distinguished order of Charles III and Isabella of Spain, of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Italy Leopoldo Belgium, Denmark Danebrog and Encina Crown of the Netherlands, second classe knight of the imperial Order of St. Anna of Russia, awarded the Nischan Iftikhar in bright, Turkey, officer and chief of the first section of the Secretary of State for business foreigners, etc …

Who, having communicated their full poderos, which were found in good and due form, having considered neat and carefully various and numerous documents and ancient and modern, advanced by both parties in support of their rights and claims, and having also had to view the studies and the joint boundary commission in recent years toured border, have agreed upon the following articles: ……

Article 12 of that treaty is expressly cited Soutochao, which became part of the Spanish crown.


From Castelo Oteiro stripe width will saw through Mairos or Peñas Free by Oteiro of Texoguiera, Lastra and the Cold Stone Source, and fall by the stream of Pajeros to Fraga and Laga Maceira de Frade. Then continue for the practiced demarcation in 1857 to source Gamoal or of Tallevalles, which will go to frame Val de Gargalo, and heading for a stream that originates near the Framework to its junction with the River Valdemadeiros, will descend to the waters of this river to

Mojón de la frontera entre España y Portugal

um proximal to the first stream is joined on the left point and continue from here on immediate way to San Vicente to Segirey straight lines, which should be all in Portuguese territory to the frame Soutochao way. From this framework will invariably stripe demarcation done in 1857 Black Stone, from which shall be directed to a point equidistant between the frame head Peixe and the site named with the same name by the Portuguese.


Due to its adjacent to the border with Northern Portugal, Soutochao like many people was affected by a few swings in the same geographical location for centuries. But in light of what was agreed in the Treaty of Lisbon of 1864 limits the definition of the border between the two countries reached political stability between the two Kingdoms run by Luís I of Portugal and Isabella II of Spain.

This procedure led to a privilege to Contraband alternative motion along each of the sides of the border. This is achieved to the extent established, reflected soon in improving the quality of life of the population.

But despite reflected substantial improvements in the population, not related to the magnitude of the unusual levels of poverty and inequality in many people residing in the village and they had to leave ahead of the conquest of the Americas, the 1890s.

These improvements also contributed to the development of the OU-310 highway, giving continuity to Soutochao Vilardevós. With border project Braganza (Portugal). Finally, the project is not completed due to the uprising of 1936, leaving the work halted at kilometer 21 to the border for more than 59 years. Three kilometers unfinished.

With the completion of the construction of the OU-310 road until Soutochao This gave life and mobility to the localities in this area transmontana with its conclusion came the external communication and the environment, through the first bus line and e Verin to Soutochao, in 1933, the company in charge of war of Verin.

Back then it was a great event for Soutochao environment and adjacent localities, raised a shout of excitement among many people, thinking if it was the end of an obstacle to social isolation and poverty for centuries.

Coach of Damaso (Ortiga) Bus which runs Verin-Soutochao in 1930.

Deemed not old but looks back on many analysis, saying: “Not hard joy in the house of the poor.” In 1936, earlier this Damaso Alvarez (Ortiga), established residency Soutochao acquires the services of the bus line making an agreement to purchase the company War. In July of the same year the national uprising occurs. While the war-torn country will confiscate the bus to service Asturias and Leon. Later when he could return after the war, he resumed service line and e-Soutochao Verin. With the Chevrolet OR-2013 registration.

Of these 1930’s when Soutochao reaches its peak population, at around 1000 inhabitants, a figure that really never achieved. Because the demand was for people in these localities in 1950 the company gathered Múñoz Orense, dándo response to the need for a direct service-Verin Ourense Soutochao.

With this great public transportation of passengers by road provided by the two companies mentioned in these years leading to a large influx of people to move daily from adjacent localities Soutochao walk up to the bus and thus able to move throughout the geography. So many people flocked to the company Guerra returned to refloat another bus line, which for several years allowed passengers possessed three bus lines with three servings daily.

In 1952 the company Damaso Alvarez (Ortiga) War the company sells the rights to operate the line. Lagging these and Muñozes line with service three times daily.

The company had its War staging point at the center of the town, called “Omedio daldea”. The company Muñoz had at the bottom of the town “Osouto” the breakpoint. There was also competition from the ticket price between the two companies.

With these privileges obtained after many vicissitudes suffered were many pharaohs which began business in Soutochao. There were 4 shops run by: Benjamin Reigada (Shop and Tailoring), Primitivo (Store, board and wood), Whistles Rivers (Shop), Damaso Alvarez (Shop).

Xaraiva of Portuguese descent made their first pyrotechnic pyrotechnics Soutochao business until 1960 where he moved the business to Pazos de Monterrey. To date updated, 2008, holds her son Luis, being recognized as one of the best fireworks in Spain.

In addition to these businesses, and farming, there were people with different professions:

  • Looms: Weaving instruments. Asunción Dieguez and Benita Garcia.
  • Tailors: Benjamín Reigada, Dosindo Lorenzo and Gregorio Canado.
  • Barbershops: Antonio Feijoo, Dosindo Lorenz and José Fernández (Regozo).
  • Shoemakers: Eduardo Sousa.
  • Stonemasons: Divino Picos and Albino Susa.
  • Forges: Francisco Calvo (1930), Divino Picos and Eugenio Barreira.Carpenters: Andrew Dieguez, allegedly ran a carpentry shop on the left bank of the river or Pontoon. The operation is produced by a rotating roller for the high virulence of water. This in turn moved by pulleys inside the machines. One of sawing and planing boards. The manufacturing process of wood were serially templates for clogs. Besides Soutochao carpenter built the first house in concrete the whole area of concello Vilardevós, located in the center of town “Omedio daldea”. Later in 1950 he emigrated with the family of Montevideo (Uruguay). Those left gave continuity to the tradition of woodworking. His brother and son Santos Antonio Dieguez Dieguez. To date, 2008, holds her grandson Jose Antonio. Francisco Fernandez (Xico) plus carpentry in building houses, making tanks for wine making and home furnishings. José Manuel (Carracedo) also dedicated to making windows and doors of all kinds, wood and carpentry building home.

In Soutochao there are six mills on both sides of the river, which move in the high virulence of the water. Our ancestors gathered in the mills with sacks of grain, particularly rye for milling. During the waiting process, which your turn, the work was combined with dancing and courtship. In these dances Mill’s famous dance Muiñeira emerged, which we dedicate a verse to muiñeiras and our ancestors for having transmitted the traditions of dance mill and those ancestors emerged several generations and reaches the new era of these musicians.

Todolos que cantan ben teñen posto no muiño; os que non saben cantar miran por un buraquiño.O meu home foi de troula e veu cheo de fariña; el muiñeiro no é eu non sei a quen se arribaría.

Meu home foi ó muiño a muiñeira ten a sarna; moerían de mistura cando o meu home se raña. Fun que non fun ó muiño eu non fun para moer; fun falar coa muiñeira non me quixo coñecer.


Eloy Papallán’s Mill

Musicians: Amaro Lorenzo, musical instrument playing Bombo. Francisco González (Gaita), Manuel Lorenzo (Meleiro) drum. Manuel Alvarez (clarinet). Santiago (Xaraiva) (Philharmonic and castanets), Ivo Rodriguez (Flute). Delmiro Fernandez (Flute). Juanito Pinta (Flute). Joaquín González (Cachoira) (accordion).

For those decades there was no discos, really mentioned these musicians were not needed because the dancing and the fun was guaranteed every Sunday.